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Marian Anderson’s brilliant singing career began at age six when she sang spirituals at the Union Baptist Church in her hometown of Philadelphia. She toured Europe in the 1920s, drawing vast acclaim; however, when she returned to the United States she was still barred from performing 5 on the American operatic stage. After she was prevented from singing in Washington’s segregated Constitution Hall in 1939, Eleanor Roosevelt intervened and arranged for Miss Anderson to perform at the Lincoln Memorial. A crowd of 75,000 people came to watch her sing before the Memorial. Marian Anderson’s beautiful contralto voice broke down 10 racial barriers, showing white Americans that blacks had a profound contribution to make to America’s cultural life. Eventually, in 1955, she became the first African- American singer to perform at New York’s Metropolitan Opera. In her many years of touring she had to endure a racism that forced her to enter concert halls and hotels through 15 service entrances. Her grace under this stress showed a moral perseverance that paralleled that of the famous Martin Luther King, Jr.

1. We can conclude from the passage that Marian Anderson first toured Europe instead of the United States because

2. The word “vast” in line 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?

3. The word “barred” in line 4 could best be replaced by which of the following?

4. The significance of Anderson’s Lincoln Memorial performance was that

5. In line 7, the word “intervened” means that Eleanor Roosevelt

6. In line 9-10, the phrase “broke down . . . barriers” means

7. In line 10, the word “profound” could best be replaced by

8. The word “eventually” in line 11 could best be replaced by which of the following?

9. The word “grace” in line 15 is similar in meaning to which of the following?

10. According to the passage, what did Marian Anderson have in common with Martin Luther King, Jr?

11. The author’s tone in this passage is

12. In line 15, what does the word “this” refer to?