Changing rates of employment
West Germany had one of the lowest rates of unemployment back in 1980. It stood at just three per cent. But then over the next three years it rose quite sharply and steadily. In 1982 it was nearly six per cent, and in 1983 it was the same as France. 1984 saw a slight increase, and 1985 a slight fall. The 1985 figure was eight per cent, inbetween France and the United States. The United States have had ups and downs, or rather, it`s the only country to show a significant drop in the number of unemployed. This is due to high interest rates, which haven`t helped the rest of the world. In 1980 the rate was about the same as France and Great Britain, slightly higher than France, actually, at about seven per cent. This rose to 7.5 per cent in 1981, and then peaked the following year at over nine per cent. Since then things have looked up for the United States. 1983 brought a slight improvement, but then in 1984 we saw a drop of two per cent to return to the 1980 figure. In 1985 there was another small drop.
I`m afraid Great Britain heads this chart. As I said, they began in 1980 in pretty much the same situation as the United States. There followed a sharp rise in 1981, when the rate was ten point five per cent. This rose gradually over the next two years to thirteen per cent. In 1984 there was no great change, but 1985 saw another increase to about thirteen point five, and figures don`t look as though they are on their way down yet.
P = Presenter
W = Henry Wilson
G = Glenna Gillingham
J = John
P Good morning, and welcome to our programme Worldly Wise. Today our attention turns to medicine and health care, and we examine a move which is becoming more and more popular, a move away from Western attitudes to medicine towards what is known as the holistic approach. But what is it? What does holistic mean? I spoke to Doctor Henry Wilson, of the National Homeopathic Centre.
W Well, holistic means �whole�, no more than that. But in terms of health care, what it means is looking at the whole body, the whole person when it comes to treating them.
P And how does that differ from a more Western approach?
W Modern medicine treats patients as a series of parts that are all isolated. It looks at the part which isn`t working and tries to remove the symptoms until everything`s working well again � a bit like a mechanic repairing a car. The opposite of holistic is symptomatic. Too often, modern medicine treats the symptoms and not the cause of an illness. Drugs and surgery can remove the symptoms �
P But what`s wrong with that? Surely that`s what a person who`s ill wants, isn`t it � to feel better, to not have the pain any more?
W Yes, but as I said, the cause remains. If you have backache, pain killers will take away the pain, but there`s still something wrong somewhere that caused the backache in the first place.
P So what does the holistic approach think about illness?
W Well, it takes into account not only the symptoms, but also the age, habits, emotions and life-style of the individual, and tries to build an overall picture. You see, being healthy means there is a balance, or a harmony, between your mind and your body. When you`re ill, it`s because there`s an imbalance somewhere, and this imbalance is shown by symptoms. The symptoms themselves aren`t very important. For example, two people suffering from headaches might be given very different treatment, because the cause of the headache is not the same.
P You mentioned treatment. If holistic medicine doesn`t prescribe drugs, how does it treat illness?
W It`s important to understand that what holistic medicine tries to do above all is prevent illness, and we all know that prevention is better than cure. A good diet, with lots of fresh food, not processed food with its preservatives and chemicals, is essential; a healthy life-style, without too much pressure and worry, and lots of exercise and rest, not too much, not too little � these are the things that will prevent illness.
P Well, that`s the theory, but what about the practice? Does it really work? I went along to the Park Clinic in Bath, run by Glenna Gillingham, who learned the arts of acupuncture in Hong Kong and China.
G Of course it works. I could quote you hundreds of success stories, of people who had been suffering for years, taking drugs that didn`t work and having major operations that weren`t necessary, and then coming to us and feeling better within weeks, sometimes days. It happens all the time.
P What sort of illnesses were these people suffering from?
G All sorts � migraine. Bob, a mechanic, had had blinding headaches for ten years. He couldn`t work, he had to stay in bed with the curtains drawn, but after a few courses here he was better. Gill, a thirty year-old who had had arthritis for years and was going to have an operation to replace her hip � after six treatments, she recovered completely. Also insomnia, coughs, drug addiction, high blood pressure.
P Right… Now with us here is John. John, could you tell us your story?
J Well, for about a year I had a terrible back. It used to get me up at five in the morning, every morning, and I was in agony all the time. I couldn`t move.
P And what happened when you saw your acupuncturist?
J We had a long chat, talked about my medical history, and my parents` medical history, my job, my life, my diet. She looked at my eyes, tongue and general colour, and took my pulse, and after an hour and a half told me to stop drinking coffee.
P Really? Why?
J Well, I had damaged kidneys, and the coffee was accumulating in my kidneys making them worse, and this came out as backache.
P So there wasn`t in fact anything wrong with your back?
J No, nothing. And from that day I`ve never had a backache.
P Oh… So Miss Gillingham, do you reject Western medicine totally?
G Certainly not. It has a very important place, particularly in accidents and emergencies. What I would like to see is Western and holistic medicine working hand in hand. We both have things to offer. What I`m trying to start here is a system where in a medical practice there are four doctors and an acupuncturist, all working in their own specialist areas.
P And what do the doctors think of this?
G They`re slowly beginning to accept us.
P Why do you think holistic medicine is becoming so popular?
G Because people are becoming disillusioned with their own doctor. They come to us complaining that the doctors don`t listen, that the six minutes they`re allowed isn`t enough to explain all they have to say, and that the doctor is almost writing the prescription as they`re walking in the room, before they`ve even begun to speak!
P I can hardly believe it!
G And I think the other thing is that we`re becoming more health conscious generally, and aware that we are basically responsible for our own health.
P And that was Doctor Henry Wilson and Glenna Gillingham, telling us how to get the best health treatment by marrying Eastern and Western approaches. And I must admit, to me it sounds very sensible.
What sort of shop are they in?
1 A Good morning.
B Good morning. I`d like to cash this, please.
A How would you like it?
B Er…. Could I have some fives and a few one pound coins, please?
2 A Can I help you?
B Yes. I`d like some Cheddar.
A Is it for cooking?
B No, it`s to have with biscuits.
A Then I recommend this one. It`s mature, and quite strong.
B Could I try a little, please?
A Yes, of course.
B Mmm, very nice. I`ll have half a pound, please.
A Anything else, sir?
B No, that`ll be all, thank you.
3 A I`d like some nice lamb chops, please.
B English or New Zealand?
A Is there much difference in price?
B The New Zealand is a little cheaper, but of course it`s not quite the same quality.
A Could I have a look at the New Zealand?
B Of course.
A They look fine. Six please.
B Two pounds thirty, please.
A Thank you.
4 A I like the style very much, and they`re very comfortable.
B Yes, they fit extremely well.
A I`m afraid I don`t like the colour. Have you got something a bit brighter? Brown is such a dull colour.
B I`ll have a look. What about a red?
A Yes, I`ve got quite a few things that might go with red. Could I try them on?
B Yes, I`ll just fetch them. One moment.
5 A Good morning.
B Hello. A large whole meal loaf, please.
A Thank you. 57p, please.
B And a half-a-dozen soft white rolls.
A Do you want the ones with sesame seeds?
B They`re for hamburgers, so yes, that`d be all right, wouldn`t it?
B Yes, that`s fine.
A Anything else?
B No, thanks. Not today.
6 A Hello, Tom. How are you today?
B Not bad, thanks. You?
A OK. What can I do for you?
B I`d like some sprouts, Alf, please.
A I couldn`t get any today. Sorry.
B Oh. Well, I`ll have some beans, then.
A How many?
B A pound will do. Have you got any avocados?
A Lovely ones. When are they for?
B Tonight, please.
A Here we are. Two beauties.
B A lettuce and a cucumber, please.
B That`s it, thanks.
7 A Hello. Have you got any of that stuff for getting stains out of furniture?
B Yes. Do you mean that sort that comes in bottles? Do you want large, small or medium?
A Oh, just the small one please.
B 75p, please.
A And I need some nails, some six-inch nails.
B They come in packs of twenty-five, sir.
A But I don`t want that many. Can I just have a few?
B I`m sorry, I can`t split them up.
A All right, then, I`ll have the packet.
8 A Twenty Benson and Hedges, please.
B King size?
A No, just the ordinary ones. Oh, and some matches please.
B There you are.
A Do you have any computer magazines?
B Yes, they`re over there on the middle shelf.
A Ah, yes.